Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Definitions
This refers to either individual or institutional actions and language that disadvantage or disempower people with disabilities, people experiencing disabilities, or disabled people. Ableism includes mental, physical, and emotional disabilities. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
The practice of grouping children together according to their talents in the classroom. This is also known as tracking.
The extent to which people are excluded or not from an activity, program, or experience on the basis of experiencing a disability. In an accessible activity, program, or experience, people with disabilities are able to do what they need to do in a similar amount of time and with similar effort as someone that does not have a disability. The concept of accessible design ensures both direct (i.e., unassisted) access and indirect access, meaning the activity, program, or experience is compatible with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). (Henry, S. L., Abou-Zahra, S., and Brewer, J. (2014). The role of accessibility in a universal web. In Proceedings of the 11th Web for All Conference (W4A '14). ACM: New York. doi#10.1145/2596695.2596719). See also universal design learning.
Accommodations are adjustments to how things are normally done. They are legally-mandated modifications, adjustments, auxiliary aids, and/or services that give a student with a disability an equal opportunity to benefit from the educational process. There are generally four types of accommodations: presentation (referring to the way information is presented) , response (referring to the way students are asked to respond), setting (referring to the characteristics of a location), and timing and scheduling (referring to when a task is planned and how long it takes to complete).
The ADA is a 1990 civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability; it also requires reasonable accommodations be put into place when needed and imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. (42 U.S.C. 12112(b)(5), 12182–84)
This approach to education focuses on the strengths of learners and embraces diversity in thought and cultural traits. It focuses on “what is right” with a learner and centers that position when approaching any problems. Learners are valued for what they bring to the classroom rather than being characterized by what they may lack. With an asset-based approach, “every community is valuable; every community has strengths and potential.” (NYU Steinhardt. (2018, October 29). An asset-based approach to education: What it is and why it matters. https://teachereducation.steinhardt.nyu.edu/an-asset-based-approach-to-education-what-it-is-and-why-it-matters/ ). This is sometimes known as an asset-based approach.
Refers to any item, software, or piece of equipment that allows people with disabilities to increase, maintain, or improve their functional capabilities. This allows them to learn, communication and overall function better in a world that isn’t yet designed for them to succeed. Assistive Technology is different for different disabilities and can be low-tech (such as written instructions) or high-tech (such as specialized computers). AT helps people who have difficulty speaking, typing, writing, remembering, pointing, seeing, hearing, learning, walking, and many other things. (Assistive Technology Industry Association. What is AT? https://www.atia.org/home/at-resources/what-is-at/)
A written course of action—a plan for what to do to prevent challenging behavior and what to do when it occurs. A behavior plan should also specify any reinforcement system in place as well as who is in charge of making revisions, and when the Special Education Team will meet to discuss updates to the plan. (https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-1-e&q=definition+of+a+behavior+plan)
A positive or negative inclination toward a person, group, or community. This can lead to stereotyping. (Thiederman, S. “Making diversity work: Seven steps for defeating Bias in the workplace”). See also Explicit Bias and Implicit Bias.
The acronym stands for "Black, Indigenous, and People of Color" and is pronounced as "by-pock," rather than saying each letter individually. This updates the term “People of Color” and its acronym “POC”, which has been criticized as erasing Black and Indigenous lives and experiences. The “B” in BIPOC stands for “Black” and refers to people who have African or Caribbean ancestry. Its addition highlights the specific forms of racism and oppression that Black Americans face. The “I” in the acronym stands for “Indigenous” and refers to groups native to the Americas who were here before colonization by Europeans. Its addition refers to the discrimination and mistreatment that Indigenous people have endured and continue to endure from official policies and practices as well as erasure of their culture and identity. The “POC” in the acronym stands for “People of Color” and is used as an umbrella term to refer to non-White individuals, including but not limited to those who hold Asian, Middle Eastern, Indian, and Pacific Island heritage, who often face discrimination. (Garcia, S. E. (2020, June 17). Where did BIPOC come from? New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/article/what-is-bipoc.html), (Ansari, M. (2020, February 18). What is BIPOC and why you should use it. Her Campus. https://www.hercampus.com/school/umkc/what-bipoc-and-why-you-should-use-it )
Culture refers to the ways of living; shared behaviors, beliefs, customs, values, and ways of knowing that guide groups of people in their daily life and are transmitted from one generation to the next. It affects how people learn, remember, reason, solve problems, and communicate; thus, culture is part and parcel of students’ intellectual and social development. Understanding how aspects of culture can vary sheds light on variation in how students learn.
An ability to successfully negotiate cross-cultural differences in order to accomplish practical goals. It includes the ability to tailor delivery of services to meet the audiences’ social, cultural, and linguistic needs in the planning, implementing, and evaluating of programs, interventions, and education. Four major components to cultural competency are awareness, attitude, knowledge, and skills. (Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., and Carrillo, J. E. (2001). Cultural competence in health care: Emerging frameworks and practical approaches. Public Health Rep. 118(4): 293-302)
- Awareness: It is important to examine diversity-related values and beliefs in order to recognize any deep-seated prejudices and stereotypes that can create barriers for learning and personal development. Many of us have blind spots when it comes to our beliefs and values; diversity education can be useful for uncovering them.
- Attitude: Values and beliefs impact cross-cultural effectiveness because they convey the extent to which we are open to differing views and opinions. The stronger we feel about our beliefs and values, the more likely we will react emotionally when they collide with cultural differences. For example, people of color and white Americans tend to have different values and beliefs about diversity and equity; the differences are, in part, the result of uniquely different exposure to oppression and discrimination.
- Knowledge: The more knowledge we have about people of different cultures, the more likely we are able to avoid stepping on cross-cultural toes. Knowing how culture impacts problem solving, managing people, asking for help, etc. can keep us connected in cross-cultural interactions.
- Skills: One can have the “right” attitude, considerable self-awareness, and a lot of knowledge about cultural differences, yet still lack the ability to effectively manage differences. If we have not learned skills or have had little opportunity to practice, our knowledge and awareness are insufficient to avoid and manage cross-cultural land mines.
Effectively reaching and engaging communities and their youth in a manner that is consistent with the cultural context and values of that community, while effectively addressing the disparities for diversity and inclusion within an organization’s entire structure. (Youth Outside Definitions (2020) retrieved from: https://youthoutside.org/programs/cultural-relevancy-series/)
Culturally responsive education (closely related to the terms “culturally relevant” and “culturally sustaining” education) refers to the combination of teaching, pedagogy, curriculum, theories, attitudes, practices, and instructional materials that center students’ culture, identities, and contexts throughout educational systems. Gloria Ladson-Billings’s and Geneva Gay’s scholarship are foundational to culturally responsive education. Some key principles of culturally responsive education (CRE) include (1) validating students’ experiences and values, (2) disrupting power dynamics that privilege dominant groups, and (3) empowering students. (New York University: Steinhardt. (2019). Culturally responsive scorecard. Available at https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/metrocenter/perspectives/introducing-culturally-responsive-curriculum-scorecard-tool-evaluate)
This term is used to characterize individuals or groups of people primarily or solely in terms of their perceived deficiencies, problems, needs, and limitations. This line of thinking focuses on what people cannot do or do not know and leads to devaluing their humanity. In education, the teacher focuses on correcting the deficit instead of drawing on the learner’s tacit knowledge and understanding. (Dinishak, J. (2016). The deficit view and its critics. Disability Studies Quarterly. 36(4)), (Harry, B. and Klingner, J. (2007). Discarding the deficit model. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 16-21). This is sometimes also known as a deficit-based approach.
This framework outlines what effective teaching looks like when teachers adjust their curriculum and instruction to center students and their abilities. Specifically, it may involve teaching the same material by using a variety of instructional strategies or teaching at varying levels of difficulty based on each student. Examples of differentiated instruction includes grouping students by shared interest, topic, or ability and designing lessons based on students’ learning styles. (Weselby, C. (2020, July 2). What is differentiated instruction? Examples of how to differentiate instruction in the classroom. Resilient Educator. https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/examples-of-differentiated-instruction/) While Differentiated Instruction is similar to Universal Design for Learning (UDL), these frameworks differ in when and how changes are made to address student needs. DI occurs during instruction as a teacher becomes aware of students’ needs whereas UDL happens when the curriculum is designed. This is also known as differentiated learning.
Refers to a physical, mental or cognitive impairment or the perception of such an impairment that impacts a person’s ability to perform day-to-day activities due to the way society is structured. In these cases, special accommodations are necessary to ensure an individual’s engagement. The adoption of the ADA makes it illegal to discriminate against people based on their disabilities. (ADA National Network. (n.d.). What is the definition of disability under the ADA? Retrieved from https://adata.org/faq/what-definition-disability-under-ada)
The differences among us based on which we experience systemic advantages or encounter systemic barriers in access to opportunities and resources. A diverse group, community, or organization is one in which a variety of social and cultural characteristics exist. (National Multicultural Institute. “Diversity Terms”. (2003) Available at: https://our.ptsem.edu/UploadedFiles/Multicultural/MCRDiversityTerms.pdf). Race and ethnicity are only two facets of diversity, but there are countless other visible and invisible facets of diversity. Furthermore, a person cannot be “diverse” (as in “diverse candidate”).
In a diverse society, the culture that has social, economic, and political power. (Oregon State University Social Justice Education Initiative (2017). https://facultyaffairs.oregonstate.edu/sjei)
A process that helps individuals, communities, and organizations learn more about the environment and develop skills and understanding about how to address global challenges. (The North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE). https://naaee.org/about-us/about-ee-and-why-it-matters). Environmental Education has also been used as an umbrella term that encompasses outdoor education and natural resources education.
The guarantee of fair treatment, access, opportunity, and advancement while at the same time striving to identify and eliminate barriers that have prevented the full participation of some groups. The principle of equity acknowledges that there are historically underserved and underrepresented populations and that providing equal or identical treatment to all does not improve the fairness of these unbalanced conditions. (UC Berkeley Initiative for Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity. “Glossary of Terms.” (2011) Available at: http://diversity.berkeley.edu/sp_glossary_of_terms)
Erasure is violence. It is the act of ignoring, removing, and/or falsifying evidence and aspects of identity or complete identities in all facets of society including, but not limited to media, history, and academia. It tends to happen gradually over a long period of time as Dominant Identities and Cultures shift the narratives where what is being erased is viewed as rare.
A dynamic set of historically derived and institutionalized ideas and practices that (1) allows people to identify or to be identified with groupings of people based on presumed (and usually claimed) commonalities including language, history, nation or region of origin, customs, ways of being, religion, names, physical appearance and/or genealogy or ancestry; (2) can be a source of meaning, action and identity; and (3) confers a sense of belonging, pride and motivation. (Markus, H. R. (2008). Pride, prejudice, and ambivalence: Toward a unified theory of race and ethnicity. American Psychologist, 63(8), 651-70). Like “race”, ethnicity is socially constructed and can be difficult to define because of the ‘truths’ societies attach to the terms. Generally speaking however, race is defined as how we perceive someone’s skin color. The power that race holds is that it is a characterization or label that someone else can place on another human being. On the other hand, “ethnicity” usually refers to the ways in which someone self-identifies learned aspects of themselves such as language, culture, or traditions. (Bryce, E. (2009, February 8). What’s the difference between race and ethnicity? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/difference-between-race-ethnicity.html), (Jean-Philippe, M. (2019, August 26). So, what’s the difference between race and ethnicity? The Oprah Magazine. https://www.oprahmag.com/life/a28787295/race-vs-ethnicity-difference/)
This term is used to describe students who are gifted as well as those with disabilities. A gifted student is characterized as a child with above average intellect and who is capable of high performance. Within the Special Education community this term describes students with learning difficulties, physical or sensory impairments, and/or behavior problems who require specialized services, modifications, and/or physical accommodations to their education in order to help them learn and engage in school. (Heward, W. L. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, ed. 10. New York, Pearson.)
A conscious tendency to favor one person, group, thing, or point of view over another. (Oregon State University Social Justice Education Initiative (2017). https://facultyaffairs.oregonstate.edu/sjei)
The survey determines whether or not a facility is accessible, and identifies what needs fixing if the facility is not. An accessibility evaluation survey compares each portion of the structure to the accessibility standards. (https://www.fs.fed.us/eng/toolbox/acc/acc10.htm)
The sanctioned curriculum officially approved by state and local school boards that represents the dominant culture’s interests. This includes courses, lessons, and learning activities students participate in, as well as the knowledge and skills educators intentionally teach to students. (UKEssays. (November 2018). Differentiate among the formal, informal and hidden curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/differentiate-among-the-formal-informal-and-hidden-curriculum-education-essay.php?vref=1), (Wilson, L. O. (2005). Curriculum: Different types. Retrieved from http://www.uwsp.edu/Education/lwilson/curric/curtyp.htm). Also referred to as the stated, overt, written, or explicit curriculum.
Anti-discrimination policy that allows students with disabilities to be provided equal access to an education. It requires that public schools evaluate students with disabilities to determine what kinds of specialized services they need to authentically engage in school. Some examples of what schools are required to provide include services that meet the unique needs of students with disabilities, services at no charge, and accommodations and modifications.
As any county with six or fewer people per square mile. ORH has identified 10 of Oregon’s 36 counties as frontier. (Oregon Office of Rural Health. (n.d.). About Rural and Frontier Data. https://www.ohsu.edu/oregon-office-of-rural-health/about-rural-and-frontier-data)
This socially constructed term refers to the roles, behaviors, activities and other characteristics a given society deems appropriate for their gender categories (in the United States, these have traditionally been identified as “boys and men” or “girls and women”). It is important to note that while biological sex is similar across cultures, gender isn’t. A personal conception of one’s own gender; often in relation to a gender opposition between masculinity and femininity. Gender expression is how people externally communicate or perform their gender identity to others. (National Multicultural Institute. “Diversity Terms”. (2003) Available at: https://our.ptsem.edu/UploadedFiles/Multicultural/MCRDiversityTerms.pdf), (American Psychological Association. (2011). Answers to your questions about transgender people, gender identity, and gender expression. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/transgender.aspx)
The unwritten, unofficial, unspoken, and often unintended lessons, values, and perspectives that students learn in school or through social and cultural messaging. This type of education happens through exposure of living and includes both positive and negative messages. Also referred to as the covert and unofficial curriculum. (Longstreet, W. S. and Shane, H. G. (1993) Curriculum for a new millennium. Boston: Allyn and Bacon)
This is an umbrella term that refers to a spectrum of disabilities that are not immediately apparent, including chronic illnesses such as renal failure, diabetes, and sleep disorders, if those diseases significantly impair normal activities of daily living. People with invisible disabilities are often accused of faking or imagining their disabilities.
Implicit bias occurs when an individual consciously rejects stereotypes while simultaneously holding negative associations unconsciously. The theory of implicit bias rests on the idea that much of our social behavior is driven by learned stereotypes that operate automatically—and therefore unconsciously—when we interact with other people. Implicit bias means that racial prejudices (and other areas of diversity) affect individuals’ decisions as well as their behavior toward people of other races, whether or not they are aware of it. Also known as unconscious or hidden bias. (Staats, C. (2013). State of the science implicit bias review (PDF). Retrieved from http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/docs/SOTS-Implicit_Bias.pdf), (American Values Institute (2009). Retrieved from http://www.americanvalues.org/), (Open Society Foundations (2011) Retrieved from https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/)
The act of creating environments in which any individual or group can be and feel welcomed, respected, supported, and valued to fully participate. An inclusive and welcoming climate embraces differences and offers respect in words and actions for all people. (UC Berkeley Initiative for Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity. “Glossary of Terms.” (2011) Available at: http://diversity.berkeley.edu/sp_glossary_of_terms)
Words or phrases that include all potential audiences from any identity group. Inclusive language does not assume or connote the absence of any group. An example of gender inclusive language is using “friends” instead of “ladies and gentlemen”. (National Multicultural Institute. “Diversity Terms”. (2003) Available at: https://our.ptsem.edu/UploadedFiles/Multicultural/MCRDiversityTerms.pdf)
A written document that maps out the specific kinds of special education instruction, supports, and services a child would need or receive in order to authentically engage in schooling. IEPs are part of the public education system, but are not a part of the college system.
The IEP team generally consists of the student, their parent(s) or legal guardian(s), a Special Education teacher, a General Education teacher, and a representative of the school or school district who is knowledgeable about the availability of school resources, and an individual who can interpret the instructional implications of the results of the student's evaluation (such as the school psychologist). (U.S. Government Printing Office. 2007-07-01. Code of federal regulations: Title 34-Education. Retrieved (2020, August 12). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2007-title34-vol2/xml/CFR-2007-title34-vol2-sec300-320.xml)
First passed in 1975, the United States of America’s Special Education Law provides rights and protections to children with disabilities and to their parents or legal guardians. There are two primary goals of IDEA: to provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to children with disabilities, and provide parents or legal guardians with a voice in their child’s education. IDEA covers children from birth through high school graduation or age 21 (whichever comes first). This was first known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). https://sites.ed.gov/idea/)
ntent is what a person meant to do and impact is the effect it had on someone else. Regardless of intent, it is imperative to recognize how behaviors, language, actions, etc. affect or influence other people. An examination of what was said or done and how it was received is the focus, not necessarily what was intended. (Workforce Diversity Network. “Professional Resources”. (2013) Available at: http://www.workforcediversitynetwork.com/res_articles.aspx). This distinction is an integral part of inclusive environments.
The ways in which oppressive institutions (racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another. (African American Policy Forum. “A Primer on Intersectionality”. Available at: http://www.whiteprivilegeconference.com/pdf/intersectionality_primer.pdf). Exposing one’s multiple identities can help clarify the ways in which a person can simultaneously experience privilege and oppression.
Learners are dependent on each other to co-create a learning experience/environment. A jigsaw activity, where each learner is responsible for researching a unique piece of the assignment and then teaching the others, is an example of an intra-dependent learning method because everyone needs to pay attention to their part in order to teach the whole.
Simply put, this is about what’s right. It’s about ensuring that people are treated fairly and have access to the same opportunities regardless of where they were born, what skin they were born in, or what they look like. Justice is a product of creating a diverse, inclusive, and equitable society.
The learning edge is a term some experts have assigned to one of the mental states an individual goes through when learning a new skill. In most prevailing theories, the learning process can be described as one's movement along a continuum. When learning, one begins in a state of comfort with one's existing knowledge. As new information is presented to the individual, he or she becomes less comfortable as the new knowledge challenges them. The individual will eventually learn this new information and become competent with this knowledge, but only after pushing the boundaries of one's previous knowledge. The state of mind one enters when pushing one's previous knowledge is what some call the learning edge. The learning edge is meant to be outside of one's comfort zone, and is believed to cause the distress that enables one to adapt to and overcome a challenging situation.
Refers to students’ educational placement and a vital component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The premise of IDEA is that students with disabilities will receive the most impactful education for them (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment possible, meaning these students are taught in the same educational environments as their peers without disabilities unless the nature of their disability requires a special class. LRE as policy influences placement, where and how services are provided to exceptional students while at school. (Center for Parent Information & Resources. (2017, September 15). Considering LRE in Placement Decisions. https://www.parentcenterhub.org/placement-lre/)
Programs or schools within the public education system that offer specialized courses or curricula. Magnet signifies that there are special topics or services that will draw a group of learners to the program or school.
Within the federal mandate of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mainstreaming refers to balancing the amount of time children with disabilities spend in both the General Education classroom and a classroom where they receive specialized education. (Applied Behavior Analysis Education. What is meant by mainstreaming? https://www.appliedbehavioranalysisedu.org/what-is-meant-by-mainstreaming/). It is important to note that mainstreaming does not mean that all students are automatically placed in a general education setting, rather students' placement shall be determined by the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) to determine how they may receive a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE).
Groups of people who face systemic disadvantages, exclusion, and barriers to opportunities, resources, and power based on their identities, including but not limited to black, indigenous, and people of color, immigrants, refugees, undocumented Americans, people with disabilities, women, anybody who identifies outside or beyond the gender binary or not as cisgender, anybody who is not heterosexual, anyone who is poor and/or from low-income communities. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
The term generally refers to students who require complex health procedures, special therapy or specialized medical equipment/supplies to enhance or sustain their lives during the school day. (American Federation of Teachers (2020) retrieved from: https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/medicallyfragilechild_2009.pdf)
Unlike an accommodation, which changes the way a learner receives information or is tested without changing the learning goal or standard, a modification changes the learning goal or objective. This could mean changing the instruction level, content, performance criteria, or the assessment.
The diversity of differences of human minds. Examples of these differences include, but are not limited to, Dyspraxia (a neurological disorder where individuals have language problems usually related to thought and perception); Dyslexia (a learning disorder where an individual has problems identifying speech sounds. It is often referred to as a reading disability.); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a disorder where an individual has issues with attention and impulse control; Dyscalculia (a learning disorder related to math); and the Autistic Spectrum, a group of developmental disabilities that can cause communication, social, and behavior issues. Neurodiversity is not a trait that any one individual possesses, but is something that can be assessed within a group. Neurodiversity is a biological fact, not a perspective, approach, belief, or paradigm.
That which is not taught. Content that is sometimes ignored deliberately or unknowingly. An educator may be intentionally overlooking or avoiding content that they don’t value or understand. Also referred to as the absent or excluded curriculum. (Eisner, E. W. (1994). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. New York: MacMillan College Publishing Company)
The flip side of privilege, oppression constitutes mistreatment we experience or barriers and disadvantages we encounter by virtue of one or more of our identities, called “marginalized” or “disadvantaged” identities. Systems of oppression refer to systems of power in society that advantage certain groups over others, and include ideologies such as racism, sexism, cissexism (referring to discrimination against transgender people), heterosexism (referring to discrimination against homosexuals based on the assumption that heterosexuality is normal and the standard), elitism, classism, ableism, nativism, colonialism, ageism, and sizeism. (collectively “the isms”). (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
Experiential learning in, for, or about the outdoors. Sometimes used broadly to refer to a range of organized activities that take place in a variety of ways in predominantly outdoor environments. (Ford, P. M., ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools., & United States. (1986). Outdoor education: Definition and philosophy. Las Cruces, NM: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools)
A teacher assistant who is not licensed to teach, but can perform teaching related tasks that support certified educational professionals. A paraprofessional can work alongside licensed teachers or on their own, and while they can work in a variety of educational environments, they’re mostly found in elementary schools. Also known as a teacher aide or paraeducator.
This is an umbrella term used to identify those who do not identify as only White or Caucasian, emphasizing common experiences of racism. The term is primarily used in the United States. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf). See also BIPOC.
The range of available educational environments in a district to support a student’s IEP as well as the overall amount of time said student will spend in a general education setting. (Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. (n.d.). https://www.k12.wa.us/student-success/special-education/special-education-families-ospi/placement-decisions-and-least). The IEP Team decides which placement(s) are appropriate for the learner based on their specific strengths and needs. This is also known as educational placement. (Center for Autism Research (CAR). Placement options for school-age students receiving special education services. https://www.carautismroadmap.org/placement-options-for-school-age-students-receiving-special-education-services/)
Power is a nuanced concept and is generally differentiated into three different categories: (1) power over, (2) power with, and (3) power within. (Stuart, G. (2019, February 1). 4 types of power: What are power over; power with; power to and power within?. Sustaining Community. https://sustainingcommunity.wordpress.com/2019/02/01/4-types-of-power/). Power is fluid, changing, and most importantly it is relational. (Berry, A. [@thecollectress]. Instagram story. Retrieved September 28, 2020)
- Power over: This is the most well known and commonly understood type of power. It is the ability or authority to decide what is best for others. The ability to decide access to resources and the capacity to exercise control over others. Wealth, Whiteness, Ableism, citizenship, patriarchy, heterosexism, and education are a few key social mechanisms through which power operates.
- Power with: This type of power is shared collaboratively and grows out of intentional relationships between individuals or groups. Power with emphasizes respect and support and works towards collective action.
- Power within: This type of power comes from a person’s “sense of self-worth and self-knowledge; it includes an ability to recognize individual differences while respecting others”. (VeneKlasen, L., & Miller, V. (2007). A new weave of power, people & politics: The action guide for advocacy and citizen participation. Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing. Chapter 3 on Power and Empowerment is available from https://justassociates.org/en/resources/new-weave-power-people-politics-action-guide-advocacy-and-citizen-participation). A person can get everything they need from themselves. It has also been referred to as empowerment.
Emphasizes that no identity (e.g., gender, race, class, etc.) operates neutrally. In order to see where one has power and privilege one needs to situate themselves in relation to others. Positionality allows one to think about how one’s own identity impacts how one works with others from different backgrounds than one’s own.
The flip side of oppression, privilege constitutes advantages we receive, consciously or unconsciously, by virtue of one or more of our identities, called “dominant identities”. These advantages are upheld by systems of power that advantage certain groups over others, and include ideologies such as racism, sexism, cissexism (transphobia), heterosexism (homophobia), elitism, classism, ableism, nativism, colonialism, ageism, and sizeism (collectively “the isms”). Privilege includes the freedom from stress, anxiety, and fear of harm related to your identity. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
A grouping of people based on skin color and/or ancestry that is based on societal, not biological, differences. Race is a false social construct that conflates skin color and ancestry with behavior, intelligence, and culture, with very real consequences for all people. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
The systems and structures and procedures and processes that disadvantage communities of color and that have created disparities in many "success indicators" including, but not limited to, wealth, the criminal justice system, employment, housing, health care, politics, and education. This overarching form of racism is harder to discern than individual racism because it is subtle, embedded, and baked into the very fabric of society. It is the process of White Supremacy. Also known as structural or institutional racism. (Yancey-Bragg, N/dea (2020, June 15). What is systemic racism? Here's what it means and how you can help dismantle it. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/15/systemic-racism-what-does-mean/5343549002/), (Powell, J. A. (2008). Structural racism: Building upon the insights of John Calmore. North Carolina Law Review, 86(3), 791–816)
Generally, any person outside their country of nationality who is unable or unwilling to return to that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution based on the person’s race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political opinion. (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2015). Glossary: refugee. Retrieved from https://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary)
Any geographic areas in Oregon ten or more miles from the centroid of a population center of 40,000 people or more. (Oregon Office of Rural Health. (n.d.). About Rural and Frontier Data. https://www.ohsu.edu/oregon-office-of-rural-health/about-rural-and-frontier-data)
Established in 1973, this civil rights law lays out the non-discrimination requirements for Federal, State, and Local agencies and programs receiving federal assistance. It prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabling conditions by programs and activities receiving or benefiting from federal financial assistance. A school that is found by the Office of Civil Rights to be out of compliance with Section 504 may lose its federal support if it does not provide children who have been identified as having special needs with reasonable accommodations comparable to those provided to their peers. (Council for Expectational Children. (2002). Understanding the difference between IDEA and Section 504: Teaching exceptional children. Learning Disabilities Online. http://www.ldonline.org/article/6086/)
The type of attraction one feels for others, often described based on the gender relationship between a person and the people they are sexually attracted to. (The Avarna Group (2020). Equity, Inclusion, and Diversity Vocabulary, retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/DI-Vocab-Sheet.pdf)
An idea that appears to be natural and obvious to people who accept it, but may or may not represent reality.
A measure of an individual’s or a group’s combined economic and social status as perceived through education, income, and occupation. (Baker, E. H. (2014). Socioeconomic status, definition. In W. C. Cockerham, R. Dingwall, & S. R. Quah (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of health, illness, behavior, and society (pp. 2210–2214). Chichester: Wiley). SES identifies the social standing of that individual or group and can reveal where there are inequities in access to resources and power.
A continuum of services used to provide students with disabilities specialized instruction to meet their individual learning needs. In the United States, this is offered free of charge through the public education system because of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This continuum of services supports students with accommodations and modifications when general education is no longer adequate. (Oregon Department of Education. (n.d.). Special Education. https://www.oregon.gov/ode/students-and-family/SpecialEducation/Pages/default.aspx)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires public schools to provide specialized instruction to eligible students. But not every child who struggles in school qualifies. To be covered, a child’s school performance must be “adversely affected” by a disability in one of the 13 categories below. (https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/special-services/special-education-basics/conditions-covered-under-idea)
1. Specific learning disability (SLD)
The umbrella term “SLD” covers a specific group of learning challenges. These conditions affect a child’s ability to read, write, listen, speak, reason, or do math. Here’s what could fall in this category:
SLD is the most common category under IDEA. In 2018, 34 percent of students who qualified did so under this category.
2. Other health impairment
3. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
ASD is a developmental disability. It covers a wide range of symptoms, but it mainly affects a child’s social and communication skills. It can also impact behavior.
4. Emotional disturbance
Various mental health issues can fall under the “emotional disturbance” category. They may include anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression. (Some of these may also be covered under “other health impairment.”)
5. Speech or language impairment
This category covers difficulties with speech or language. A common example is stuttering. Other examples are trouble pronouncing words or making sounds with the voice. It also covers language problems that make it hard for kids to understand words or express themselves.
6. Visual impairment, including blindness
A child who has eyesight problems is considered to have a visual impairment. This category includes both partial sight and blindness. If eyewear can correct a vision problem, then it doesn’t qualify.
Kids with a diagnosis of deafness fall under this category. These are kids who can’t hear most or all sounds, even with a hearing aid.
8. Hearing impairment
The term “hearing impairment” refers to a hearing loss not covered by the definition of deafness. This type of loss can change over time. Being hard of hearing is not the same thing as having trouble with auditory or language processing.
Kids with a diagnosis of deaf-blindness have both severe hearing and vision loss. Their communication and other needs are so unique that programs for just the deaf or blind can’t meet them.
10. Orthopedic impairment
An orthopedic impairment is one where kids lack function or physical ability in their bodies. An example is cerebral palsy.
11. Intellectual disability
Kids with this type of disability have below-average intellectual ability. They may also have poor communication, self-care, and social skills. Down syndrome is one example of an intellectual disability.
12. Traumatic brain injury
This is a brain injury caused by an accident or some kind of physical force.
13. Multiple disabilities
A child with multiple disabilities has more than one condition covered by IDEA. Having multiple issues creates educational needs that can’t be met in a program designed for any one disability.
Learn how to find out if a child is eligible for special education. When kids are determined to be eligible, the next step will be to create an Individualized Education Program (IEP). For kids who are in preschool or younger, you may want to learn about early intervention.
A broad collection of specialists who support students with disabilities within a school system; may include Speech Pathologist, Special Education Teacher, Occupational Therapist, School Administrators (e.g., Principal), Counselor, Autism Specialist, Behavior Specialist and Teacher on Special Assignment.
A disorder that impacts an individual’s ability to understand language (spoken or written). This might look like having difficulty listening, speaking, reading, writing, or doing math. See “Special Education Eligibility Categories”.
A framework used to improve and optimize teaching and learning. UDL is used to design instructional goals, assessments, and materials to help engage not only students with disabilities but all students in a class. There are three guiding principles of UDL, Engagement (referring to the “why” of learning), Representation (referring to the “what” of learning), and Action & Expression (referring to the “how” of learning). (CAST. (n.d.). About Universal Design for Learning. http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.X00khVBlBR3)
The unquestioned and unearned set of advantages, entitlements, Benefits, and choices bestowed on people solely because they are White. White people who experience such privilege may or may not be conscious of it. (McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women studies. http://www.wcwonline.org/title108.html)